2013 NASA PLANETARY VOLCANOLOGY

FIELD WORKSHOP

Tentative Schedule

At each stop we will have available IKONOS, Landsat ETM+, TIMS, and Airbornel LiDAR images of the particular locations and we will stress which of the local features can be identified and properly interpreted in them. In addition to large, poster-sized printouts of images for group discussions, each participant will have their own set of image data prints in a 3-ring binder. Participants can annotate these images, take notes on them, and use them to compare with their own observations.

Day l: 

Tour of Kilauea caldera features, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), Halema 'uma 'u pit crater, and Mauna Ulu summit.
Objectives: To gain an appreciation for the scale and complexity of caldera features, and how these largescale structures affect the morphology and distribution of lava flows. Also to learn more about the morphology of basaltic shields, to learn how their activity is monitored, and to understand how they evolve over time. Here we will introduce the Airbornel LiDAR and TOPSAR data sets as analogs to topographic mapping instruments on Mars and as input for addressing rover trafficability on rough, undulating surfaces. We will also hike around the summit of the Mauna Ulu shield, observing features in the vent area of a longlasting eruption.

Day 2:


Lower Mauna Ulu flowfield, Hilina pali, active lava flows.
Objectives: As a follow-on to the previous day's examination of Mauna Ulu summit, we will study downflow characteristics of the Mauna Ulu flows, including a detailed examination of a number of wellpreserved features along one particular lava channel (Harris in prep.). We will also view and discuss the unstable south flank of Kilauea including ideas for its formation and its effects on lava flows that encounter it. Finally, Pele willing, we will hike to, and observe active lava flows on the lower flanks of the current flowfield. The opportunity to observe active flows is exciting to any Earth scientist, and extremely beneficial for understanding emplacement mechanisms. 10 minutes of live flows is worth hundreds of powerpoint presentations.

Day 3:

Guided mapping exercise on Mauna Loa NE flank.
Objectives: to gain an understanding of the subtle yet detectable differences on basaltic surfaces that arise from different exposure times to weathering. In this area we have a very good opportunity to observe numerous Mauna Loa NE rift zone lava flows of varying ages and textures, using both IKONOS and TIMS datasets. The very different characteristics of the flows that are apparent in thermal IR wavelengths (but mostly not apparent in visible wavelengths; compare Figures 3 and 4) are an important concept for those who will be using THEMIS data in Martian volcanic regions. This is a classic area for studying the character of basaltic lava flows in thermal IR data (Kahle et al. 1988; Crisp et al. 1990; Abrams et al. 1991).

Day 4:


Visit the upper SW rift zone area of Kilauea to examine structures within, and erosion of, the Keanakako'i ash.
Objectives: With Guest Volcanologist Bruce Houghton, to observe depositional and erosional structures in a hydromagmatic ash deposit, and to assess the quality of digital elevation data to map such structures, using the Airborne1 LiDAR topographic data set. This ash deposit was produced during a prolonged period of Kilauea's history when explosive rather than effusive activity was the norm (e.g. Swanson & Christiansen 1973; McPhie et al. 1990; Mastin et al. 1999). From a planetary perspective these extensive ash deposits are important because they illustrate the formation of a duri-crust as well as erosional channel formation by surface water flow and possibly by sapping (Malin et al. 1983).


Day 5:


Visit some extremely large lava channels and tubes on the SW flank of Mauna Loa.
Objectives: To understand the interplay between effusion rate and lava surface texture, the limitations of simple numerical models if not applied carefully, and to examine littoral "rootless" cones. The large channels and tubes as well as the large littoral cones are all associated with the ~2500 year-old Pohue Bay flow (Lipman & Swenson 1984; Jurado-Chichay & Rowland 1995; Jurado-Chichay et al. 1996). They are some of the best examples of high volumetric flow-rate lavas that don't fit nicely into the typical pahoehoe and 'a'a volumetric flow-rate/surface texture relationships (e.g. Rowland & Walker 1990). Because of the dry climate in this area, flow features are exposed very well, making this an excellent field site.


Day 6:

Mauna Iki mapping exercise, Middle SW Rift Zone of Kilauea.
Objectives: to put the previous week's knowledge to practical use, and to use remote-sensing data to map flow textures, collapse features, tectonic features, etc. In the process of completing a reconnaissance map of lava textures and rift zone features, the participants will be required to utilize multiple remote sensing images that are analogs to various Planetary data sets. We have obtained co-registered IKONOS, Landsat TM, TIMS, and AIRSAR data for the Mauna Iki satellitic shield (erupted in 1919-1920; Rowland & Munro 1993); a great variety of constructional and destructional volcanic and tectonic features are available within a relatively small area, making this an ideal site for a final wrap-up mapping exercise. The students will have been provided with co-registered image data of Mauna Iki at least a month prior to the workshop, and encouraged to produce a geologic map prior to coming to Hawai'i.

Day 7 :

Wrap up.

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