Geothermal Topics

Bibliographies

Bibliographies, or organized listings of materials about specific topics, can serve as a launching point for research. The Geothermal Collection has bibliographies on geothermal energy, more specifically geothermal power economics, geologic hazards, and biological resources. The Geothermal Collection Annotated bibliography: Marine geologic hazards of the Hawaiian Islands with special focus on submarine slides and turbidity ...

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Archaeology & Hawaiian Culture

Archaeology & Hawaiian Culture

The first settlers arrived in Puna between 300 and 600 A.D. The second settlement, the Tahitians, came in 1100 to 1300 A.D. Since then, ali’i (ruling chiefs) and kahuna (priests) ruled over Puna for hundreds of years, fighting for control. Their descendent, King Kamehameha I, united the Hawaiian islands as one country. Puna’s legends live ...

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Economic Aspects

Economic Aspects

Geothermal development affects the economy through lowering the cost of electricity, spending money in the community, and providing jobs. Economic analysis identifies the geothermal exploration’s economic feasibility and impact to the community. The Geothermal Collection Assessment of energy reserves and costs of geothermal resources in Hawaii Economic assessment of potential geothermal resource areas Economic factors ...

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Natural Hazards

Natural Hazards

Natural hazards can threaten property and life. Hawaii’s natural hazards include volcanic gases, lava flows and domes, earthquakes, landslides, mudflows, eruption columns and clouds, and pyroclastic flows (fast-moving current of hot gas and rocks). The Geothermal Collection Emergency plan Explosive eruptions of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii Geologic Hazards Impact Analysis of Potential Geothermal Resource Areas: Circular ...

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Geothermal Energy Direct Uses

Geothermal Energy Direct Uses

Ancient Hawaiians used the Kilauea Volcano’s summit for cooking and heating. They cooked whole pigs on top of the volcano’s fumaroles, or openings that emits steam and gases. The ancient Hawaiians also bathed in geothermal pools for medicinal use. In modern times, Hawaii’s volcano heat has been used for drying fruits, heating geothermal spas, and ...

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Drilling

Drilling

Geothermal drilling involves drilling the earth to create boreholes (deep, narrow holes in the ground) to capture geothermal energy through hydrothermal. Drilling documents include proposals, plans, permits, drilling logs, manuals, and status and completion reports. The Geothermal Collection Continental Scientific Drilling Program : Department of Navy CORE-LOGS: Summary Information; Composite Lithologuc Column; LOGS for Boxes ...

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Well Logging

Well Logging

Well logging, or borehole logging, is the process of creating a well log. The well log records the geological formations through the length of the borehole. Some log types include electrical, porosity, and lithology. HGP-A (Hawaii Geothermal Project Well-A) Analysis of Geophysical Logs from the Hawaii Geothermal Project Well Chemistry, Petrography, and Hydrothermal Alteration of ...

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Groundwater

Groundwater

One of Hawaii’s most important natural resources, groundwater provides and sustains life as drinking water and fulfills domestic, commercial, and industrial needs. Groundwater provides about 99 percent of Hawaii’s domestic water and about 50 percent of freshwater used in Hawaii. Hawaii’s groundwater resource may appear plentiful; however, much of the rainfall runs off to the ...

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Electromagnetic Surveys

Electromagnetic Surveys

Electromagnetic surveys employs induction to measure the electrical conductivity in the subsurface (the earth lying right beneath the surface). To search for groundwater and geothermal resources in Hawaii, electromagnetic surveys were conducted. The Geothermal Collection State of Hawaii A coordinated exploration program for geothermal sources on the island of Hawaii Principal facts : time-domain electromagnetic ...

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Environmental Aspects and Baseline Studies

Environmental Aspects and Baseline Studies

Geothermal development affects the surrounding environment. Environmental aspects include people’s health, air quality, land use, natural resources, water quality, and wildlife. Before starting the land development, geothermal companies must conduct baseline studies. These studies describe the land development’s impact to the environment (e.g. physical, chemical, and biological) and a site’s conditions (e.g. groundwater conditions, ambient ...

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Mining Leases

A mining lease is required for mining geothermal minerals in Hawaii. The Department of Land and Natural Resources, State of Hawai‘i, issues mining leases in Hawaii. Mining Leases for Puna, Hawaii Extension of primary ten-year term for geothermal resource mining leases R-1 and R-2 Geothermal resources mining lease no. R-5 Geothermal Resources Mining Lease No.: ...

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Engineering

Engineering

Geothermal engineering applies scientific knowledge to develop geothermal equipment and processes, which convert the earth’s thermal energy to electrical power. Mechanical engineers develop drilling equipment and more efficient ways of mining geothermal energy, civil engineers develop the geothermal power plants, and electrical engineers develop the geothermal equipment. Scientists from the College of Engineering, University of ...

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Geothermal Power Development

Geothermal Power Development

Hawaii currently depends heavily on imports of petroleum and coal for power. Geothermal power serves as an alternative and renewable energy source and can potentially decrease electricity costs in Hawaii. Tapping geothermal energy,  the Puna Geothermal Venture currently supplies some of Hawaii island’s electricity. The Geothermal Collection Geothermal Energy Geothermal Energy for Hawaii: A Prospectus ...

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Well Plugging and Abandonment

Well Plugging and Abandonment

To plug and abandon a geothermal well in Hawaii, past geothermal operators have submitted the following to State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources: well record summary well location map drilling log and core report well schematic survey plot map well history report navigation survey production wellhead configuration chemistry report testing and production report ...

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Water Wells

Water Wells

Sea water surrounds Hawaii, and rainwater is available in Hawaii’s lava foundation. Therefore, water is used to capture geothermal energy via underground heat in Hawaii, and Hawaii’s geothermal resource is “hydrothermal” (using heated water in the earth’s crust). The Geothermal Collection CWB-individual NPDES Form C KA1-1 geothermal well site restoration : Puna district, Hawaii, Hawaii, ...

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Chemical Analyses

Chemical Analyses

Because of Hawaii’s lack of thermal springs, instead the chloride/magnesium ratio (Cl/Mg ratio) of shallow groundwater indicates potential geothermal energy sources. As Hawaii is surrounded by the ocean, sea salt seeps into all of Hawaii’s groundwater, either through the underlying seawater or through the land above. Research has shown that chloride ion concentrations generally stay the ...

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Health Effects — Air Quality and Noise Levels

Health Effects — Air Quality and Noise Levels

Geothermal exploration and development must achieve high standards for air quality and noise levels for not only their workers’ safety, but ultimately the community’s public health. The Geothermal Collection — Health Effects Assessing and managing potential health and safety issues related to high voltage direct current transmission lines Geothermal public health assessment : findings & ...

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Brine Mining

Brine Mining

Valuable metals can be extracted from geothermal brine, or water that the geothermal power plants suck from the ground. Valuable metals under the Puna Geothermal Venture plant include silica, copper, zinc, and gold. Silica could be used to create art, such as sculptures and pottery. Materials on ScholarSpace/eVols Advances in the Study of Solids Deposition ...

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